托福指导:听力常见修辞总结

http://www.youth.cn  2013-09-30 16:41:44  中国青年网

  一、Hyperbole(夸张)

       试比较以下托福听力短对话的两种回答方式:

  Have you asked your brother to do the dishes?

  1) Yes, many times.(很多遍了。)

  2) Yes, a thousand times.(无数次了。)

  很明显,第一种回答方式不如第二种生动,因为a thousand times(无数次)使用了Hyperbole(夸张)的修辞手法。Hyperbole一词源于希腊语的huperbole,意思是exceed(超过),是一种故意夸大其词(overstatement)或言过其实的修辞手法;其特点是对表达对象进行有违常识或不合逻辑的夸张性描写,以达到强烈的修辞效果。如:a river of tears(泪河)、a mountain of coal(煤山)、oceans of people(人海)...Hyperbole(夸张)在托福听力中的运用也可谓炉火纯青。

  比如:

  1) You are my life saver.(你是我的“救命恩人”。)

  2) You are 100% right.(你“百分之百”的正确。)

  3) My back killed me.(我的腰痛的厉害。)

  4) You make me feel guilty.(你让我感觉像是在犯罪。)

  5) I haven't seen you for ages.(好久不见了呀!)

  6) I could sleep for a whole year.(我太困了。)

  7) We'really tired to death.(我们快累死了。)

  当然,除了托福听力,Hyperbole(夸张)的修辞手法在英语语言文学中的经典范例不胜枚举:

  1)One father is more than a hundred schoolmasters.(George Herbert)(一个父亲的作用大于100个教师。)

  2)It's a crime to stay inside on such a beautiful day.(今天阳光明媚,躲在家中实在太遗憾了。)

  3)Adrop of ink may make a million think.(George GByron)(一滴墨水写成的文字可让千万人思索。)

  二、Simile(明喻)

  试比较以下两种托福听力表达方式:

  1)He spent a lot of money.(他花了大笔的钱。)

  2)He spent a lot of money,like water.(他花钱如流水。)

  很明显,第二种表达方式比第一种更加生动和形象。因为like water(如流水)使用了Simile(明喻)的修辞手法,这样以来,无疑使语言更加精彩和完美,听力考试也不再单纯是一门考试,而变成了一种享受。Simile(明喻)一词源于拉丁语similes,其意为like(象)。他借助人们的想象力,使用一定的比喻词如:like,as等加以连接,从而清楚的表明两种事物之间的相似之处,使得表达更加新鲜有趣。其典型形式是A is like B. Simile(明喻)的修辞手法在托福听力中的运用可谓炉火纯青。

  比如:

  1.Like引导

  1)He sweats like a pig.(他像猪一样流汗。)

  2)They slept like babies.(他们像婴儿一样熟睡着。)

  3)Living without anaimis like sailing without a compass.(John Ruskin)(生活没有目标犹如航行没有指南针。)

  4)Records fell like ripe apples on a windy day.(E.B.White)(被打破的记录犹如刮风天成熟的苹果——纷纷坠落。)

  2.As引导

  1)She is as beautiful as a flower.(她像花一样的美丽。)

  2)“I am as light as a feather, I am as happy as am angel, I am as merry as a schoolboy. I am as giddy as a drunkenman...”(CharlesDickens)(我像羽毛一样轻,我像天使一样幸福,我像小学生一样快活,我像喝醉了酒的人一样飘飘然……)

  3)The first time I read an excellent book, it is to me as if I had gained a new friend.

  (我头一回读到一本好书,对我来说好象交了一位新朋友。)

  注意:As引导的as...as结构在英语中得到了广泛应用,若能在口语交流或各种作文考试(如:TWE等)中用上一个,定会得到意想不到的效果,常用的as结构有:

  (as) firm as a rock坚如磐石

  (as) light as a feather轻如鸿毛

  (as) close as anoyster守口如瓶

  (as) mute as a fish噤若寒蝉

  (as) strong as a horse强壮如牛

  (as) cool as a cucumber泰然自若

  (as) sober as a judge十分清醒

  (as) sure as a gun千真万确

  上面是托福听力常见修辞总结,希望对大家有所帮助。

编辑:廖书曼 来源:沪江英语网

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托福指导:听力常见修辞总结
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